Highlights of the Collection
A muzzle-loading gun with system of piston, in concrete it's a "Modèle An XIII". Walnut butt with golden brass corner. Bowl, under-gard and clamp in gold brass. 17.1 mm caliber. It presents the following inscriptions and marks: two marks scratched in the cylinder head; "1809" in the butt next to the beginning of the cannon; "C 1809" in the beginning of the cannon; Crowned "B"; “M[odèle An 1]3"on the top of the beginning of the cannon,"E[mpire] F[ançais] "on the beginning of the cannon.
The origin of this gun is in 1800 when Napoleón formed a commission of generals in charge of the definition of the characteristics of a new model of a muzzle-loading gun that replaced the M1777, used by the cavalry. In 1806 they began to produce it. The inscription "C 1809" indicates that we are dealing with a French weapon manufactured in 1809 in one of the imperial manufactures (Charleville, Saint-Etienne, Tulle, Versailles or Maubege) (BOULET, 1993: 50). The presence of the two scratched marks on the cylinder head could indicate that it was used in a duel of guns.
Spanish-Carthaginian decal coined between the years 221-218 BC. In an unknown mint of the southern of the peninsula (Villaronga, 1994: 69-45).
Obverse: Tanit head looking to the left (with features of indigenous influence).
Reverse: Horse head looking to the right and in front of the neck, a phoenician letter, Aleph.
Smooth edge: The Carthaginians began minting coins in the Iberian Peninsula around 237 BC to pay the tax demanded by the Romans after the defeat of the I Punic War and for the payment of its troops. They were doing that until the roman lost Cartago Nova (Qart Hadast) in 209 a.C. (ALFARO, 1998). In such a short period of time, the coinage was very complete, with values in gold, silver and bronze.
However, the emissions are anepigraphic and the mints are not exactly known (most likely it could be in Akara Leuke and Qart Hadast). The most abundant representations are those of the Carthaginian pantheon gods, Tanit, Melkart and Eshmun with a horse on the reverse (VIVES, 1980).
A bust belonging to a herm representation of the god Bacchus as a mature man with a beard. The formal traits he presents, especially in eyes and beard, seems to indicate that it is an unfinished sculpture. Its flat back is not sculptured at all. In the upper part there are remnants of a metal staple that problably was used to join this part with other elements that integrated it.
Although the origin of this type of pieces is greek, it will be in the roman world where it acquires its greater development and diffusion from a typological point of view, with the creation of several differentiated models as well the use of different techniques and materials employed for its elaboration that changed its meaning and function.
If in greek culture it was an object of worship related to Hermes, a protector associated to travelers and fertility, for the romans it would became a merely ornamental object in villas and gardens in the provinces of Hispania. These series of hellenistic tradition representations appeared in the roman sumptuary arts between the 1st and 2nd century AD. In Rome it took place the evolution of this hellenistic type who was formed by a pillar of white marble with the representation of a divinity in its upper part, towards differentiated types like the herm-portrait, the herma-decorative or the double-herm (PEÑA, 2002 : 360-362).
The decontextualization of this piece makes it very difficult its chronological age determination and functionality. Therefore, all the affirmations must be taken with caution.
Steel swab with pole of quadrangular section, slightly curved because of the use. It lacks the stick. Handle with conical wood and studded metallic finishes. An instrument used to clean the bore of the gun barrel, whose shaft corresponds to the length of the barrel for which it is used. Its use was stipulated in Spain at least from the beginning of the eighteenth century (ORDENAZAS, 1728: 68), although its origin was so much earlier, linked to the employ of the first firearms.
MODEL OF THE BATTLE OF BAILÉN
Model that shows the deployment of the troops in the battle of Bailén. Scale: 1: 2000.
The Battle of Bailén occurred on July 19, 1808 during the Spanish War of Independence, it was the first defeat in the history of Napoleon's imperial army. The french troops of Dupont (21000 soldiers) were defeated by the spanish troops of Castaños (27,000 soldiers). Castaños was considered the commander of the Spanish army in Andalusia (ÁLVAREZ JUNCO, 1994).
After the May 2 uprising, Napoleon ordered General Dupont to subject Andalusia and to assist the naval squadron of Rossilly (There were blocked in Cadiz by the Spaniards). On his way to Andalusia, Dupont had to confront the spanish army in Bailén on July 19 ( Seville and Granada committees called for the recruitment of military troops to stop the French passage through Andalusia). Following the Porcuna plan, the Reding and Coupigny Divisions of the Spanish Army of Andalusia, organized by General Francisco Javier Castaños, began a no-mercy battle that ended in the Dupont's surrender (CUENCA TORIBIO, 2006: 156)